Nuclear power plants are very harmful and dangerous objects.

A clear distinction should be made between these two techniques. Sound analysis is performed only at the sound level.

Phonological analysis is performed with words that are heard and then uttered by students themselves.

If during the sound analysis the students are engaged in establishing the component and sound structure of the word, then during the sound analysis the children must, in addition, name the sounds and letters with which they are denoted.

Sound and letter analysis can be performed both orally and in writing. You can perform both a complete word analysis and a partial one.

Phonographic analysis of the word has slightly different tasks. The main one is the development of the ability to correctly (without omissions) to denote sounds in the words perceived by the ear, the usual letter signs in this language.

During the phonetic analysis it is necessary to go from the sound to the letter, and not vice versa, as it sometimes happens in practice, because the sound is primary, the letter is secondary and is used depending on the sound. The sequence of phonetic analysis of the word is as follows:

Pronounce the word in syllables. Compose a sound model of the word. Name the number of syllables in it, determine the stressed syllable. Pronounce sequentially the sounds that make up a word. Names are vowels and consonants, soft and hard consonants (if necessary – phonetic and deaf). Write the word, naming the letters that denote the sounds in the word, indicating the peculiarity of the use of letters. For example: in the word rain the sounds [шч] are denoted by one letter Щ (шч).

It is advisable to use a complete phonetic analysis only at the stage when students develop an awareness of the relationship between sound and letter. The program does not require a written full phonetic analysis.

Audio and phonetic analysis require the ability to logically and conclusively construct statements. Therefore, when teaching how to conduct these types of work, the teacher must give a sample answer, written on a poster or board.


Lesson development on the topic "Nature is a fairy tale that should be read with the heart"… Abstract

The abstract presents the development of a lesson on the topic "Nature is a fairy tale that should be read with the heart" whose purpose is to deepen students ‘knowledge of the nature of its wealth, to promote the education of students’ love for nature, willingness to preserve and increase its wealth

All evil in the human heart should, it seems, disappear in communication with nature – this direct source of beauty and goodness.

Goal. To deepen students ‘knowledge of nature and its riches, to promote the education of students’ love for nature, willingness to preserve and increase its riches.

Equipment. Posters, paintings, the Red Book of Ukraine, sayings: «Only the heart sees well, the most important thing is not visible to the eyes» (Exupery) «To protect nature means to protect the Motherland» (Prishvin), «Nature’s creations are more perfect than works of art «(Cicero), nature’s pure heart» (Chabanovsky), «Observe nature and follow the path it shows you» (Jean-Jacques Rousseau).

Epigraph. Love your land, which the Lord has given you.

Lesson plan

1. Nature, man, homeland.

2. The ashes of Chernobyl are pounding in the human heart.

3. «Love, respect, protect nature – the eternal source of our life and our firmness» (M. Rylsky).

Course of the lesson

Introductory word of the teacher.

Perhaps the greatest pleasure and joy, the most ardent love for the native land, for life is caused by communication with nature. She charmed and enchanted, excited and excited man. The whisper of blue water, green oaks, the singing of loud birds, the smell and variety of flowers – all this is dear to the heart, the incomparable beauty of the native land.

Nature and the Fatherland are inseparable. Each of us has a good place in his heart where he spent his childhood: green levada, meadows with fragrant cut grass, sunny pine forest or shady grove with strawberry meadows, a wide field where it is so easy and sweet to breathe, a path on both sides of which grow cornflowers and poppies, and on which, it seems, you do not go, but fly like a bird.


Infinitely from childhood I love the beauty of my native land – the Dnieper, the doves of the blind, Pine in the evening transparent, And the moon in the silver clouds, And the freshness of spring leaves, And the blue ray of cornflowers In the wheat sea of ​​ears. Pupil. I will visit the forest again For a quiet cordial conversation, Where the strawberry smells ripe And the sun-scorched glitz! I hear cuckoos forging. Birches trembling sighs, Thin white-eyed sisters Weaved their branches in a braid.

Teacher’s story. The land of our grandfathers and great-grandfathers, our Motherland. Our parents lived and grew up on it, and we took our first steps on it. New generations of people are growing up on it. People have lived on these lands since ancient times. But in the days of our grandfathers and great-grandfathers there were no serious environmental problems. (Dictionary. Ecology – from the Greek – home, environment, – the science of the connection of organisms with the environment. Ecological problem – environmental pollution).

People lived with nature, did not separate themselves from it. They took her gifts from nature and understood that the better and smarter they would be towards her, the better it would be for them. Man is a part of nature, the flesh of his flesh. Not a crown, not a converter and not a ruler! A slice. This is prehistoric. But why is the problem of ecology so acute today? Why do we so often witness the reckless interference of man in the inner world of nature?

Probably because we care first of all about the results of our work, and not about the consequences of our intervention in the natural environment. Ignorance of the world around us, its features leads to major environmental disasters.

The Chernobyl accident (April 26, 1986) was a terrible disaster for the Ukrainian people. These are hundreds of victims, hundreds and thousands of patients and cripples, the radiation background in some places exceeded the permissible norms. All areas where the black cloud of the Chernobyl disaster did not reach were polluted. This is Ukraine, Belarus and Russia.

Twenty kilometers from Moscow, 23 Ukrainians are buried in the Chita cemetery. Among them are Volodymyr Pravyi, Viktor Kibenyuk, Volodymyr Tyshura, Mykola Vashchuk, Volodymyr Ignatenko, whose grateful memory will be eternal, because these heroes managed to reduce the scale of the accident and prevent the explosion of another reactor.


Fire, radiation fiercely beastly, Boiled granite and resin. Not sinners – the boys were burning in that hell … And there was a zone of silence. The unknown era of Borney began its cure with a new most terrible evil, And rumbled and thundered to everyone at the door of the Fourth Block fault. And in Sweden, the arrows jumped instruments, Anxiety permeated the whole world – It was torn by human misfortune on the scales, And there was a zone of silence. The crater spat with poisonous steam, And ominous clouds floated, And people had yards and sidewalks for the May Day holiday. Women in the gardens dug in the clay, So wildly cherry blossoms … Limousines rolled away from Kiev, And there was a zone of silence. Unheard of rumors crept among the people, And their heads swelled. They watched in the hope of the radio: «Moscow will explain everything later.» There were pioneers in the main columns, Cheerfulness – from the stands of height. There were echelons waiting in silence: «How will it thunder, will we have time to escape?» … I still lack ozone, There is a suffocating youth in my chest … The zone has not been fenced off yet, And there was a zone of silence.

(Sergey Zakonnikov, translated from Belarusian by Vasyl Hanushchak).

The teacher. Nuclear power plants are very harmful and dangerous objects. They take away natural water for cooling, and in due course rivers and lakes become wet, the level of ground waters decreases. Therefore, people in management positions should be prudent about where to build such stations, as well as other factories and plants. It is necessary to live constantly in unity with nature, and not just be its bourgeois consumer.

Once people believed in gods – the protectors of all living things on earth. Such a patroness of plants was Flora, and the patroness of animals was the goddess Fauna. Therefore, the flora is called flora, and fauna – fauna.

Pupil. Mother Nature had two daughters of such beauty: whoever saw them for a moment could not forget and fall out of love. The blue-eyed man’s name was Flora. Her eyes, like stars, are compare and contrast essay online to buy always dreamy, fragile, affectionate, tender and friendly. And the fauna, fast as the wind, could fly after birds, jump after deer and play with squirrels. Both loved the living world, so they adored it. The wise mother decided to give the same gifts to them: to the dreamy Flora the plant world, and to the lively Fauna – the animal world, to protect and take care of, to protect from all evil. Two goddesses still live in legends of the living world.

Conversation with students:

Do all people preserve natural resources? What needs to be done so that people do not destroy nature? Which of you has a feeder in the garden? And who do storks visit in warm weather? Have you ever had to help feathered friends? What was your help? And how do you understand the saying: «Nature is a fairy tale that should be read with the heart»?

And, of course, all this requires truly heroic work. And above all – a good heart, tireless hands and understanding that without daily work to preserve nature, we simply can not survive:

And what exactly can we do? Will he be considered a cultured person who does not love and protect nature?

Yes, you and I must daily set an example of caring for nature, landscaping classrooms, schools, do not litter and clean our stream, take care of landscaping, monitor the anthills, do not destroy bird nests, stop in time the one who destroys nature.

We need to embrace the surrounding beauty with our hearts and protect it, make sure that the choir of the May morning never stops, winged oaks rustle over us forever, apple trees have a gentle pink flower, magic nightingales sing, because Nature is a fairy tale that can be read only by heart !!


Reforms of education abroad in the late XIX – XX centuries. Abstract

At the end of the XIX century. in the leading Western European countries, the inconsistency of traditional pedagogy with the new socio-economic conditions became acute. New types of workers were needed for enterprises equipped with the latest technology

The traditional school, which was essentially a school of learning, focused on the education of obedient and executive workers. The general knowledge provided by the school was extremely limited and dogmatic, and teaching methods did not encourage students to think independently. New approaches to the theory and practice of education and upbringing were needed, which would correspond to the rapid development of production due to the progress of science and culture.