Since 1894 Borys Dmytrovych has been working in the Chernihiv Provincial Zemstvo.

Contemporaries sometimes called him a "singer of contemplation." However, M. Dry-Khmara was not indifferent to everything that was happening around, although he did not glorify the new era. Remember, the poet was significantly influenced by symbolism. It is no coincidence that some of the critics (say, Yu. Sherekh) even defend the thesis that the poetry of M. Dry-Khmara is a typical poetry of a symbolist, moreover a symbolist of the outstanding. The artist really paid tribute to the poetics of symbolism – he created meaningful images, used foreign language, was fond of the music of the word and so on.

M. Dry-Cloud is dedicated to the search for harmony with nature, people and the world. He admires the beauty of his native land, lakes, meadows, the golden sun that fell on the loose straw, cranes hurrying out of the vortex. Nature in its versatility conveys the full range of human feelings and moods, nourishes the soul, soothes pain. The poet’s landscape miniatures impress with their masterful reproduction of sound and visual impressions. "I perceive the whole world with my eyes, / because I love line and color," he wrote in one of his poems. Among the best examples of his landscape lyrics – "I’m worried about the blue horizon", "Delusions on legs and rye", "Throwing a blue dove in the evening", "Deer – like a handkerchief in the basamans" and others …

The sonnet of M. Dry-Khmara "Swans" became a remarkable example of real poetry. Published in the Literary Fair in December 1928, the sonnet actually became the last public performance of the neoclassicists. Using dissent and symbolic imagery, M. Dry-Khmara speaks in this work about the "cluster of five invincible singers" actually, having in mind M. Zerov, M. Rylsky, P. Filipovich, O. Burghardt and himself, author. It is they, united by common interests and ideals, who were not afraid of the "winter of threats", breaking the "ice of despair and despair", making their way to the world "where the ocean of bubbling life foams".

In the symbolism of the sonnet, the cultural situation in Ukraine is guessed, at that time it was already extremely unfavorable for free creativity, the artist’s right to his own opinion, civil position was defended. Appearing in print when the attacks against the neoclassicists intensified, M. Dry-Khmara’s sonnet became a bold word in defense of the poet’s literary colleagues. The work was subjected to brutal dogmatic criticism, and its author was deprived of the opportunity to publish.

Like the neoclassicists in general, M. Dry-Khmara translated a lot and skillfully. Thanks to his inspired translation work, the words of A. Mickiewicz, S. Baudelaire, P. Verlaine, S. Leconte de Lille, O. Pushkin, M. Lermontov, O. Blok, S. Yesenin, M. Bogdanovich and a number of others resounded in Ukraine. masters of world poetry.

M. Dry-Khmara’s contribution to the development of Ukrainian literary criticism is also noticeable. In 1926 a separate edition of his thorough monograph "Lesya Ukrainka" was published. He also addressed the problems of the development of Shevchenko studies, collected new materials for the biography of V. Chumak, studied Slavic studies, and was interested in the achievements of Belarusian literature (works on M. Bogdanovich and J. Kupala).

M. Dry-Khmara could have done much more for the sake of Ukrainian literature, but in the heyday of his creative forces he was arrested in March 1933. The writer was soon released and deprived of all positions, without even being given the opportunity to get a job. The second arrest becomes fatal. The accusation leveled against him is standard: nationalist counter-revolutionary activity. And although M. Dry-Khmara denied everything, the punishment was not long in coming – five years in camps.

His slave path runs on Kolyma; here he works in the mines, washes the sand, kneeling in the icy water. Over time, the UNKVD’s "troika" resolution gave him another ten years for anti-Soviet propaganda in the camp. He died in 1939. There is a version in this regard, supported by memories that during one of the next shootings every fifth in a row, the writer took the place of a suicide bomber, thus saving the young man.

Thanks to the poet’s wife, we miraculously received the manuscript of his second collection "Solar Marches" and the tragic poem "Again charred matches" written in Lukyanovskaya prison in 1936 … "The mentioned poem is a cry of pain and unspeakable longing for youth and happiness. and will.


Writer, scientist, publicist, public figure Borys Hrinchenko. Abstract

The real biography of Borys Dmytrovych Hrinchenko (1863-1910) is his indefatigable, uninterrupted, from the first performance as a young man until the last moment, work for the native people, his constant readiness to lay down his life for the working people.

Borys Dmytrovych Hrinchenko was born on December 9, 1863, in the village of Vilkhovy Yar near the village of Ruski Tyshky, now in the Kharkiv district of the Kharkiv region, into a family of impoverished small-town nobles.

An unrestrained desire for knowledge, love of words, the desire to master the laws of beauty were manifested in the boy from early childhood. He reads a lot and with inspiration. His interests are diverse and thorough. Subtle and beautiful children’s imagination was saturated with an attractive world of images, encouraged creativity. And soon, impressed by what he read, the teenager begins to write himself.

He creates a "samizdat" manuscript magazine, which he fills with his own stories and poems. From 1874 to 1879 Borys Hrinchenko studied at the Kharkiv Real School, where he became close to populist circles. He was arrested and imprisoned for several months for distributing publications banned by the tsarist government. After his release, Borys Dmytrovych had to leave school and start earning a living himself.

The harsh circumstances of reality force the young man to take care of a piece of bread and not to give up the book. It so happened that while working in the state chamber, Grinchenko lived in a shoemaker’s family. Curious and hardworking, he soon learned to sew boots and had little income from it. By saving, limiting himself in everything, Boris thus saved money on books.

Acquired self-education allowed B. Hrinchenko to pass exams for the title of public teacher at Kharkiv University. From 1881 his educational and pedagogical activity began, which lasted until 1893. He taught in the villages of Kharkiv, Sumy, Ekaterinoslav. The exterior of his biography is not clear at this time, but internally it was an incredibly rich and eventful year. B. Hrinchenko combined teaching with folklore and ethnography, culturology, science and linguistics. He writes a lot.

At this time, his works of various genres, signed either by his own name or by a pseudonym (P. Vartovy, Vasyl Chaichenko, B. Vilkhivsky, Ivan Perekotypole), are regularly published in magazines and almanacs. His poetic collections "Songs of Vasyl Chaichenko" (1884), "Under the Village Roof" (1886), "Under the Cloudy Sky" (1893), "Songs and Thoughts" (1895) were published. Minutes (1903). Since 1894 Borys Dmytrovych has been working in the Chernihiv Provincial Zemstvo. Hard and slow work took away from the writer almost all his free time.

Creative moments had to be carved out at the expense of a dream and rest. "I always had only good moments for poetry, free from work – sometimes any, expensive, mostly prayer – boring, mercenary. My song is my working rest and my working-hope" – the artist admitted. During his work in the zemstvo B. Grinchenko wrote the dilogy "In the middle of the dark night" (1901), and "Under the quiet willows" (1902), published the plays "Forest Stars" (1897), "Cloud" (1897), "Steppe Guest" (1898), "Among the Storms" (1899), "On Public Work" (1901).

B. Hrinchenko was an extremely hard-working man. His ardent love for his native land, for lab report writing cheap his people, forced him to "try to find the spark of the world where darkness seemed to be." Such rays of true national nature were the publication of his scientific investigations "Ethnographic materials collected in Chernihiv and neighboring provinces" in three volumes (1895-1899), "From the mouths of the people" (1900), "Literature of Ukrainian folklore ( 1777-1900) "(1901).

In 1902 the writer moved to Kyiv. Here, together with his wife Maria Zagirna, he worked on compiling the summary of his work, the four-volume Dictionary of the Ukrainian Language (1907-1909). This outstanding work was awarded an academic prize. The writer’s health, undermined by long-standing tuberculosis (the consequences of his imprisonment in Kharkiv), could not withstand such a tense, continuous rhythm.

The last straw of his life was the death of his daughter Nastya and her young son. A sharp exacerbation of the disease forced him to go to Italy for treatment, but too late – on May 6, 1910, the life of a tireless worker ended in Oskendaletti. B. Hrinchenko was buried in Kyiv, in the Baykovo cemetery.

The life and work of B. Hrinchenko for many generations is an effective example of asceticism in the development of Ukrainian culture and national idea. Perhaps another Ukrainian writer, Mykola Chernyavsky, said it most aptly: "He worked harder than he lived." And although the clear meaning of this definition hides a significant inaccuracy – because it was work that was the highest meaning and vocation of his life – it is important, indeed, to realize the breadth and timeless significance of the artist’s creative feat.

The figure of a tireless worker who selflessly gave all his strength and time to the national culture can rightly stand next to our titans of the nation, such as Taras Shevchenko, Ivan Franko, Panteleimon Kulish, Lesya Ukrainka. His formation as a writer and citizen took place at the end of the XIX century, in the most deaf time of public life of Ukraine.

It was a time of cruel and foolish exploits of national consciousness, when the slightest manifestations and attempts of self-awareness and self-affirmation of oneself as a people were suppressed. It was a time of total etching of everything Ukrainian – starting with the word and ending with the idea. It was in these conditions that a young constellation of fighters for the Ukrainian national cause entered the historical arena, the brightest representative of which was undoubtedly Borys Hrinchenko.

One of his literary pseudonyms is The Watchman. Of course, in this way the writer consciously determined his role and his place in social processes. Despite the writer’s talent, Borys Hrinchenko also had the undoubted talent of an extremely conscientious scientist. The WORD became the material of his hobbies, the subject of his research, the field of his activity.

The word is the substance that accumulates in itself the creative energy of the nation.